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Gossypium herbaceum L.

Protologue  
 Sp. pl. 2: 693 (1753).
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Family  
 Malvaceae
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Chromosome number  
 2n = 26
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Synonyms  
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Vernacular names  
 Cotton, Arabian cotton, Levant cotton (En). Coton, cotonnier, cotonnier herbacé, cotonnier d’Asie, cotonnier africain (Fr). Algodoeiro, algodoeiro asiático (Po).
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Origin and geographic distribution  
 Gossypium herbaceum originated in southern Africa but was first domesticated in Arabia, from where cultivated forms spread westward to Africa and eastward to India. At present it is cultivated in Africa and Asia, and sometimes planted in the New World.
In this article the word ‘cotton’ refers to information referring to all 4 cultivated Gossypium species (Gossypium arboreum L., Gossypium barbadense L., Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium hirsutum L.); where information refers to Gossypium herbaceum only, this is stated explicitly.
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Uses  
 Cotton is the most important group of fibre plants in the world. The main fibres of cotton plants are the longer seed hairs (‘lint’), used for making yarn to be woven into textile fabrics, alone or in combination with other plant, animal or synthetic fibres. Cotton lint is also made into other products including sewing thread, cordage and fishing nets. Cotton textile cuttings and rags serve in the paper industry for the production of the best writing, book and drawing paper. Short fibres (‘fuzz’ or ‘linters’) are processed into a range of products, including papers, twine, automobile upholstery, explosives, plastics and photographic film. Linter pulp is made into various types of paper, depending on its grade. Linters have also been used for the production of cellulose acetate and viscose. Cotton stalks are processed into paper and paperboard, for instance in China, and into cement-bonded particle board.
Oil obtained from cotton seed is industrially used in a range of products, including margarine, mayonnaise, salad and cooking oils, salad dressing and shortening. It is also made into soap, cosmetics, lubricants, sulphonated oils and protective coatings. Locally it serves for cooking and frying. Blends of cotton-oil biodiesel and diesel fuel can be used in conventional diesel engines without any major changes. The seed cake remaining after oil extraction is an important protein concentrate for livestock. Low-grade cake is used as manure. The whole seed can be fed to ruminants, which are less sensitive to the toxic gossypol in the seed than non-ruminants, or is applied as manure. Hulls are a low-grade roughage for livestock or serve as bedding or fuel. Leftover bolls, leaves and thin twigs are grazed by ruminants. Dry stalks serve as household fuel.
In tropical Africa Gossypium herbaceum has largely been replaced by Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense as a source of cotton fibre, and its fibre is not much used nowadays. In Namibia the fibres of wild plants are used in cleaning pads, they are placed into quivers to separate arrows, and are used for placing medicines into the ears. In Zimbabwe spinning and weaving of wild Gossypium herbaceum fibre was practised up to 1940, but the practice seems to have died out. In the Lake Chad area of Nigeria Gossypium herbaceum is planted to demarcate fields.
Gossypium herbaceum is widely used in traditional African medicine, especially root preparations. In Senegal a root maceration is given to new-born babies and sickly or rachitic children, to strengthen them. In Somalia a root decoction is drunk as an abortifacient. In Ethiopia the root is chewed in case of a snake bite. In Namibia the powdered root bark is applied as a haemostatic. In Botswana root preparations are used for the treatment of heart palpitations. In Mozambique root decoctions are drunk as a tonic and to control vomiting, an infusion of the root against lack of appetite, an infusion of the roots of Gossypium herbaceum and Maclura africana (Bureau) Corner to purify mother milk, and an infusion of the roots of Gossypium herbaceum and a Cynodon species to prevent abortion. The stem juice is applied against otitis in the Seychelles. The juice of the heated unripe fruit is dropped into the ear against earache in Somalia, while in Ethiopia the powdered fruit is applied on the head for the treatment of fungal infections.
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Production and international trade  
 According to FAO estimates the annual world cotton production in 2004–2008 was about 70 million t seed cotton (unginned cotton, containing seed, lint and fuzz), from 34 million ha. However, the largest part (more than 90%) of the world cotton production comes from Gossypium hirsutum, which is highly productive and shows strong yield responses to improved growing conditions, fertilizers, crop protection and supplementary irrigation. Most of the remainder comes from Gossypium barbadense. Gossypium herbaceum accounts for less than 1% of world cotton fibre production. In 2005, the total planted area of Gossypium herbaceum was about 770,000 ha, of which 98% in India. In tropical Africa Gossypium herbaceum is grown for domestic use only.
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Properties  
 Cotton fibres are unicellular extensions of epidermis cells of the seed. Two types of fibres are distinguished: long fibres (‘lint’) and short fibres (‘fuzz’ or ‘linters’). Cotton lint fibres are 10–40(–64) mm long, with a diameter of (12–)18–28(–42) μm and a length:width ratio of 1000–4000. The lint fibres of Gossypium herbaceum are (10–)20–25 mm long and mostly coarse, although very fine fibres also occur and are processed into handmade, decorative traditional textiles (the ‘woven winds of India’). In general, the fibres of Gossypium herbaceum are shorter, coarser and weaker than those of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense. Fuzz fibres are similar in appearance to lint fibres, but shorter (2–7 mm long), more cylindrical and with thicker walls.
Apart from fibre length and its uniformity, the most important properties of cotton are fineness (diameter), maturity, strength and elasticity. The combined fineness and maturity (the degree to which the secondary cell wall has developed) of cotton fibre is usually determined by resistance to air flow, and expressed in a value called ‘micronaire’, reflecting the linear density of fibres. Typical values of the tensile strength, elongation at break, and Young’s modulus of cotton fibre are 285–595 N/mm², 7.0–8.0% and 5500–12,600 N/mm², respectively. Among the world’s major textile fibres, cotton has a unique combination of properties, being strong, comfortable, washable, durable and printable. It also blends well with other fibres to give it additional strength, lustre and crease resistance. On a dry weight basis, cotton fibre contains 88–96% α-cellulose, 3–6% hemicelluloses and 1–2% lignin.
Cotton seeds remaining after ginning consist of linters (5–10%), oil (15–33%), oilcake (33–45%) and hulls (24–34%). Cottonseed oil is a semi-drying oil obtained by mechanical and/or solvent oil extraction from the seed. The principal fatty acids in cottonseed oil are linoleic acid (42–59%), palmitic acid (20–34%) and oleic acid (13–25%). The oil of 4 Gossypium herbaceum cultivars from India mainly contained linoleic acid (48–54%), palmitic acid (22–27%) and oleic acid (20–22%). The seed oil also contains 0.5–1(–2)% cyclopropenoid fatty acids, which are known to cause physiological disorders in animals. The oil as well as other plant parts of Gossypium species contain gossypol, a triterpenoid aldehyde, which is toxic to humans and animals, monogastric animals in particular. Gossypol has insecticidal, antimicrobial, antifertility and antitumour properties. Gossypol and related compounds have been implicated in conferring insect tolerance or resistance and antimicrobial properties to cotton plants. Glandless, gossypol-free cultivars exist, but they are more vulnerable to pests. Gossypol can be removed from the oil by solvent extraction, following mechanical and/or solvent oil extraction from the seed. The cake and meal contain over 40% crude protein, but are not without danger for monogastric animals, because of the gossypol they contain. The gossypol in the cake can be removed or made harmless by chemical (ferrous salts) or physical (heating) means, but this is more difficult to achieve economically than removing gossypol from the oil.
Methanol leaf extracts of Gossypium herbaceum have shown antibacterial activity against Bacillus megaterium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Sorcina lutea, while petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform and acetone extracts were inactive against most bacteria.
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Description  
 Perennial or annual shrub or subshrub up to 3 m tall, with few branches and nearly all parts irregularly dotted with black oil glands; stem thick and rigid, stem and branches hairy or glabrous. Leaves spirally arranged; stipules small, linear, caducous; petiole 2–3.5 cm long; blade 3–7-lobed, cut less than halfway, 2–6 cm × 2–7 cm, base cordate, lobes ovate to rounded, only slightly constricted at the base, upper surface glabrescent, lower surface stellate hairy, glands present on midvein beneath. Flowers solitary, usually on sympodial branches; pedicel 7–30 mm long, not articulated, glandless; epicalyx segments (bracteoles) 3, flaring widely from the flower and the fruit, rounded or broadly triangular, usually wider than long, cordate at base, margin with 5–13 triangular teeth, persistent; calyx 5–10 mm long; corolla yellow or white with a dark centre, petals 5, 2.5–5 cm long; stamens numerous, forming a antheriferous column throughout, filaments short, anthers 1-celled; pistil with 3–5-celled ovary and one short style, stigma entire, rarely cleft at the top. Fruit (‘boll’) a rounded capsule 2–3.5 cm long, beaked, surface smooth or very shallowly dented, with few oil glands, 3–4-valved, opening slightly when ripe, with up to 11 seeds per valve. Seed ovoid, with a dense covering of long, pure white, woolly hairs (lint or floss) and sometimes also with a fine, short tomentum (fuzz), strongly attached to the seed. Seedling with epigeal germination.
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Other botanical information  
 Gossypium comprises about 50 species distributed in warm temperate to tropical zones. The origin of the genus is unknown, but 3 primary centres of diversity exist: in Australia, in north-eastern Africa to Arabia, and in western-central to southern Mexico. The 4 cultivated cottons of the world (the Old World diploids Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum and the New World tetraploids Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum) have been domesticated independently in different parts of the world. The taxonomy of Gossypium is complicated, partly due to the domestication of 4 distinct species and extensive interspecific hybridization. The literature is confusing and authors disagree on the identity of many species, subspecies, sections, varieties, forms, races and cultivars that have been distinguished. Currently the taxonomic system of P.A. Fryxell, with about 50 species grouped into 4 subgenera and 8 sections, is the most generally accepted one. It is mainly based on morphological and geographical data, but is confirmed by cytogenetic and molecular evidence. Cytological research has led to the recognition of 8 basic diploid ‘genomic groups’, designated A through G, plus K. In general, species within a genomic group can form fertile interspecific hybrids. Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium arboreum are included in subgenus Gossypium: diploid Old World species with A-genome, whereas Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium hirsutum belong to subgenus Karpas: tetraploid New World species with AD-genome.
Gossypium herbaceum is subdivided into 2 subspecies:
– subsp. africanum (Watt) Vollesen (synonym: Gossypium herbaceum L. var. africanum (Watt) Hutch. & R.L.M.Ghose), the wild form: perennial shrub, stem and petiole without long simple hairs, sometimes with stellate hairs with long branches, stipules 3–8(–9) mm long, calyx ciliate, and fruit 15–20(–25) mm long; it is distributed in Angola, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa and Swaziland, and is considered the ancestor of the cultivated forms of Gossypium herbaceum.
– subsp. herbaceum, comprising the cultivated forms: perennial or annual shrubs, stem and petiole with long simple hairs, stipules (6–)9–15 mm long, calyx only rarely ciliate, and fruit 20–32 mm long.
Subsp. herbaceum is subdivided into 4 races:
– acerifolium: large, rounded, many-branched shrubs with small bolls, in which the seeds are sparsely covered with coarse lint; the most primitive cultivated form of Gossypium herbaceum; probably domesticated in Ethiopia or southern Arabia and from there spread to West Africa; in tropical Africa formerly the main cultivated cotton from Gambia to Ethiopia, but replaced by Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense and only persisting in relict cultivations.
– kuljianum: annual, very small, slender, sparsely branched subshrubs, with small bolls and scanty lint of low quality; early maturing, selected for regions with short, hot summers and long, cold winters; mainly cultivated in Russia and western China.
– persicum: annual, small, sparsely branched, stout subshrubs, with large, round bolls and copious lint of moderate quality; adapted to regions with a relatively cool winter season; initially spread around the Mediterranean, this was the first cotton cultivated in the Nile delta, later it also spread eastward through Iraq to Turkmenistan and Afghanistan.
– wightianum: annual, large, stout, moderately branched shrubs, with large bolls and copious lint of high quality; cultivated in Iran and western India.
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Anatomy  
 Cotton lint fibres are smooth-looking, ribbon-like and twisted, with the fibre walls showing longitudinal and spiral striations. The fibre walls contain many layers of cellulose chains, which run spirally and give dry fibres their characteristic twisting appearance. The hairs are covered with a waxy cuticle, giving unprocessed fibre a greasy feel and making it water-repellent.
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Growth and development  
 Gossypium spp. are normally perennial plants with an indeterminate growth habit, but are usually grown as annuals, with the formation of nodes on the main stem stopped by fruit load, temperature, soil moisture, photoperiod, or a combination of these factors. The crop cycle is 120–220 days. Seedlings emerge 5–15(–30) days after sowing and the first true leaf unfolds 7–9 days later, but these processes vary with temperature. Upon germination, seedlings initiate a long taproot, which can reach a depth of more than 25 cm by the time the cotyledons unfold and may reach a depth of 3 m by mid-season. The shoot system is dimorphic, with the main axis and lower branches (emerging from axillary buds) being monopodial and vegetative, whereas the fruiting branches (emerging from extra-axillary buds) are sympodial. Fruiting branches develop as primary branches higher on the main stem and as secondary branches on vegetative branches. Generally only one fruiting branch develops at each node, with 3–5 fruits per branch. The first fruiting branch appears at node 4–5 of the main stem, between 1 and 2 months after sowing, and visible flower buds appear as small, green, pyramidal structures, known as ‘squares’. They need 20–35 days to develop into open flowers. The flowers mostly open near dawn and pollination normally occurs within a few hours. Self-pollination is the predominant mating system, but visiting insects can cause considerable outcrossing (up to 40%). Flowering peaks at 3(–6) weeks after the onset and may continue for about 6 weeks. The fruits grow very quickly after pollination, reaching their final size at about 20–25 days. After a further (20–)25–45(–60) days, depending on genotype and environmental conditions, they are ripe. Usually the dry fruits open at their sutures and the white, fluffy fibre-mass emerges. The seeds remain attached to the placenta and are only separated by picking or by very strong rain or wind.
During the first 2–4 weeks after flowering (the elongation phase) the fibres grow rapidly, reaching their full length, and during the next 4–6 weeks (the secondary thickening phase) the cell walls of the fibres thicken through deposition of cellulose in consecutive layers. The cell wall thickness of a fibre, or the degree to which the fibre has been filled with cellulose, mainly depends on plant vigour during ripening. Upon boll opening the fibre dries and the lumen collapses, resulting in the characteristic twisted, ribbon-like appearance of the fibre that makes it spinnable.
Shedding of squares and young bolls is common in cotton. It is aggravated by adverse conditions such as prolonged overcast weather, extreme temperatures, water stress, waterlogging, nutrient deficiencies, diseases and insect damage. Commonly 60% of the squares and young bolls are shed, but flowers are rarely shed. The ability to overcome adverse events by compensatory growth is characteristic for cotton. However, recovery is only partial and insignificant when severe insect damage occurs late in the season.
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Ecology  
 Gossypium herbaceum requires a temperature of (18–)26–36(–38)°C and a rainfall of (200–)750–1250(–1500) mm during the growing season. It can be grown on medium to deep, light to heavy, well-drained soils with a moderate fertility and a pH of (5.3–)6–7.2(–8.5). It is usually cultivated in marginal, drought prone environments of Asia due to its inherent ability to withstand drought. In tropical Africa it occurs from sea-level up to 1200 m altitude.
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Propagation and planting  
 Cotton is propagated by seed. The 1000-seedweight of Gossypium herbaceum is 30–60 g. In India Gossypium herbaceum is grown in rows 60–260 cm apart.
It is possible to propagate cotton vegetatively by cuttings, budding or grafting. The development of rapid, reproducible and genotype-independent systems of in-vitro propagation of Gossypium species been difficult, though methods have now been developed to produce large numbers of somatic embryos from callus from hypocotyl or cotyledon explants of Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium barbadense, Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium hirsutum.
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Management  
 Cotton can be grown as a perennial and be cut back and ratooned. Growing cotton species as perennials was formerly very common, but it has been discouraged, because perennial cotton can act as a host reservoir for cotton pests and diseases. Locally, for instance in Cameroon, fields with perennial cotton plants can still been seen.
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Diseases and pests  
 Diseases are less important in cotton than pests. The most widespread diseases are bacterial blight, leaf spot, blackarm or boll rot caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. malvacearum (synonym: Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum), anthracnose caused by Glomerella gossypii (anamorph: Colletotrichum gossypii), Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum, and Verticillium wilt caused by Verticillium dahliae. Before resistance was found and incorporated in Gossypium hirsutum cultivars, bacterial blight caused seed cotton yield losses up to 28% in African cotton crops, and it is considered partially responsible for the sustained cultivation of Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum in Africa and Asia. Bacterial blight is controlled by growing cotton only once every 3 or more years on the same field, removing the harvest remains and seed treatment. Anthracnose can be controlled by the same measures, but resistant cultivars are not available. Cropping methods to control wilt diseases include crop rotation, sufficient K-fertilization and the control of nematodes. The most important virus diseases of cotton in tropical Africa are leaf curl, African cotton mosaic and cotton blue disease. Virus diseases are controlled by eliminating reservoir hosts and vectors, and by using tolerant or resistant cultivars.
Cotton suffers from a wide spectrum of pests. Bollworms are among the most serious pests. They feed inside the bolls, damaging lint and seed and so causing considerable reduction in yield and quality. The main bollworms are American bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella) and spiny bollworm (Earias spp.). Spiny bollworm has a serious early effect of tipboring in the main stem leading to excessive formation of vegetative branches and delaying the setting of bolls, which makes them vulnerable to mid-season American bollworm and stainers. Resistance to bollworms has not been achieved to the desired extent, and their control has long relied heavily on insecticides.
Leaf, stem and bud-sucking bugs can cause considerable damage. Jassids (Amrasca, Empoasca, Erythroneura, Jacobiella and Jacobisca spp.) are the first pests to appear, but a dense coating of long hairs on leaves and stems provides good protection. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) are pests later in the season; the former is the vector of leaf curl and African cotton mosaic, the latter of cotton blue disease. Whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii) are pests later in the season. Early sowing, weeding and harvesting and the use of short-season cultivars can reduce their damage. Cotton stainers (Dysdercus spp.) occur in all cotton-growing countries. They pierce the green bolls and inject the fungus Nematospora gossypii, which causes yellow staining of the lint, resulting in lower quality. About 4 alternating sprays of organophosphates and pyrethroids can overcome this pest. Fairly effective preventive control can be obtained by strict phyto-sanitation, early cropping of maize or sorghum followed by early ploughing and close planting of cotton using an early-maturing cultivar. Close relatives of cotton, such as Abutilon species growing nearby are alternative hosts of cotton pests, especially stainers.
Insect pests in cotton have been effectively controlled since 1945 with the use of insecticides. The repeated development of resistance of insect pests (especially the American bollworm) to new insecticides has in some countries led to excessive spraying, up to 15 sprays per season, killing all natural enemies. This may also induce outbreaks of previously minor pests, requiring additional spraying. To reduce the use of pesticides, the application of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) or Integrated Weed and Pest Management (IWPM) is advocated. Very early field preparation including repeated weeding, fertilizer application, early planting of jassid-resistant cultivars, gapping, thinning and judicious use of pesticides on the basis of insect monitoring and damage thresholds, form the basis of interacting IWPM farming practices. Preventive weed control by ploughing or hoeing promptly after clearing the preceding crop stores moisture from unexpected storms in the subsoil which makes it possible to plant early. This encourages early fruiting well ahead of the main pest, American bollworm, and provides ample time for compensatory fruiting in case of early fruit damage. As insecticides against jassids are no longer needed they do not kill the natural enemies which control American bollworm in its vulnerable young stage. By the time the later pink bollworms, stainers and whitefly occur, the main crop will be safe.
The most widely distributed economically important nematode in cotton is the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), whereas the reniform nematode (Rotylenchus spp.) is more restricted to tropical and subtropical environments. Gossypium arboreum, Gossypium herbaceum and Gossypium barbadense are less susceptible to the reniform nematode than Gossypium hirsutum. Nematodes can be controlled by rotation and chemicals, whereas cotton genotypes have been developed with some tolerance to the reniform nematode.
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Harvesting  
 In tropical Africa cotton harvesting is generally done by hand. After the cotton has been harvested, the cotton stems should be uprooted and burnt to prevent the build-up of pest and diseases.
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Yield  
 A seed cotton yield of up to 4 t/ha is possible under optimal conditions, but in practice it is seldom over 2.5 t/ha and the average world yield is about 2 t/ha. In most tropical African countries the yield is around 1 t/ha. Seed cotton of primitive cultivars yields 20–25% fibre after ginning, whereas good cultivars of upland cotton have a ‘ginning-outturn’ of at least 35% and sometimes over 40%. Some modern Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum cultivars grown in India and China also yield up to 40% lint.
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Handling after harvest  
 Cotton lint is removed from the seeds by ginning, which can be done with a hand gin (capacity of 2–3 kg lint/hour) or mechanically. Mechanical ginning can be done with a saw gin (capacity of 300 kg lint/hour) for the shorter stapled cottons, or with the more gentle roller gin (capacity of 30 kg lint/hour) for the longer stapled fine types. In some African countries, such as Kenya and Uganda, roller ginning is common, even for shorter stapled cotton. In West and Central Africa manual ginning may be done by placing the seed cotton on a block of wood or a flat stone, and squeezing out the seeds by rolling an iron or wooden rod over it. The optimum moisture content of the fibre for ginning is 5–7%. When the moisture content is lower, excessive fibre damage occurs; when it is higher, the amount of broken seeds is higher.
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Genetic resources and breeding  
 In Uzbekistan the Cotton Breeding Institute, the Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental Biology and the National University of Uzbekistan together hold about 1500 Gossypium herbaceum accessions. In Russia the N.I.Vavilov Institute of Plant Industry (VIR) in St Petersburg holds about 300 accessions of Gossypium herbaceum. In India about 300 Gossypium herbaceum accessions are kept at the Central Institute for Cotton Research (CICR) in Nagpur and Coimbatore, and the National Bureau for Plant Genetic Resources (NBPGR) in New Delhi. The National Collection of Gossypium Germplasm housed at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center (SPARC), College Station, Texas, United States contains about 200 Gossypium herbaceum accessions, the genebank of CIRAD (Centre de Coopération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement) at Montpellier, France, 50, and the Iran National Gene Bank (INGB) in Gurgan, Iran, about 40.
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Breeding  
 Until the 1930s cotton breeding was limited to crossing within the diploid and tetraploid groups. After this, polyploidization of the diploids greatly increased breeding opportunities. Crosses between Old World and New World genotypes have become important, especially for resistance breeding and the breeding of better cultivars for regions in Asia where Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium herbaceum grow well, but Gossypium hirsutum does not. F1 hybrid cultivars with considerable hybrid vigour for yield have been successfully developed. However, the available systems of cytoplasmic male sterility have been inadequate for large-scale production of hybrid seed, mainly due to incomplete expression of fertility restorer genes in the male parents. Current use of cotton hybrids is limited to South Asia and China, where seed production by manual emasculation and pollination is economically feasible because of low labour costs.
The main objectives in cotton breeding, apart from higher yields, are photoperiod-insensitivity, early maturity, adaptation to mechanical harvesting (through low growth, little branching, short flowering period, loosely attached seeds, less hairy leaves), fibre quality (length, fineness, strength and elasticity), seed quality (high oil content and low gossypol content, increased suitability of the presscake as a source of protein for humans and animals), resistance to diseases (e.g. bacterial blight and Fusarium wilt) and pests (e.g. bollworms, jassids) and tolerance to drought, cold and salinity. There has been little progress in breeding for pest resistance (except for resistance to jassids), but much success has been obtained in resistance and tolerance to Fusarium and Verticillium wilts, bacterial blight and nematodes.
Although Gossypium herbaceum is still cultivated in a considerable number of countries, organized breeding efforts on the species are carried out in India only. The genetic improvement programmes in India are aimed at improving the yield potential and fibre quality. Gossypium herbaceum is used in genetic and biotechnological studies in many laboratories around the world, mainly as donor species in introgressive breeding to improve tetraploid cotton, especially for disease resistance and insect tolerance.
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Prospects  
 Cotton will remain very important on a worldwide scale, because of its excellent fibre properties and low price, but Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense will remain the most important species. The role of Gossypium herbaceum will remain marginal, despite it being more tolerant to drought, bacterial blight and various pests. It will remain important, however, in the genetic improvement of Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense.
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Major references  
 • Burkill, H.M., 1997. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. 2nd Edition. Volume 4, Families M–R. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. 969 pp.
• Hutchinson, J., 1962. The history and relationships of the world’s cottons. Endeavour 21: 5–15.
• Kerkhoven, G.J. & Mutsaers, H.J.W., 2003. Gossypium L. In: Brink, M. & Escobin, R.P. (Editors). Plant Resources of South-East Asia No 17. Fibre plants. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, Netherlands. pp. 139–150.
• Kirkpatrick, T.L. & Rothrock, C.S., 2001. Compendium of cotton diseases. 2nd Edition. APS (American Phytopathological Society) Press, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States. 77 pp.
• Kulkarni, V.N., Khadi, B.M., Maralappanavar, M.S., Deshapande, L.A. & Narayanan, S.S., 2009. The worldwide gene pools of Gossypium arboreum L. and G. herbaceum L., and their improvement. In: Paterson, A.H. (Editor). Genetics and genomics of cotton. Springer-Verlag New York, United States. pp. 69–97.
• Matthews, G.A. & Tunstall, J.P. (Editors), 1994. Insect pests of cotton. CAB International, Wallingford, United Kingdom. 593 pp.
• Neuwinger, H.D., 2000. African traditional medicine: a dictionary of plant use and applications. Medpharm Scientific, Stuttgart, Germany. 589 pp.
• Peeters, M.-C., van Langenhove, L., Louwagie, J., Waterkeyn, L. & Mergeai, G., 2001. Cotton. In: Raemaekers, R.H. (Editor). Crop production in tropical Africa. DGIC (Directorate General for International Cooperation), Ministry of Foreign Affairs, External Trade and International Cooperation, Brussels, Belgium. pp. 1041–1070.
• SEPASAL, 2011. Gossypium herbaceum. [Internet] Survey of Economic Plants for Arid and Semi-Arid Lands (SEPASAL) database. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, United Kingdom. http://www.kew.org/ ceb/sepasal/. Accessed September 2011.
• Vollesen, K., 1987. The native species of Gossypium (Malvaceae) in Africa, Arabia and Pakistan. Kew Bulletin 42(2): 337–349.
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Other references  
 • Adjanohoun, E.J., Abel, A., Aké Assi, L., Brown, D., Chetty, K.S., Chong-Seng, L., Eymé, J., Friedman, F., Gassita, J.N., Goudoté, E.N., Govinden, P., Keita, A., Koudogbo, B., Lai-Lam, G., Landreau, D., Lionnet, G. & Soopramanien, A., 1983. Médecine traditionelle et pharmacopée - Contribution aux études ethnobotaniques et floristiques aux Seychelles. Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Paris, France. 170 pp.
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Sources of illustration  
 • Exell, A.W. & Meeuse, A.D.J., 1961. Malvaceae. In: Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (Editors). Flora Zambesiaca. Volume 1, part 2. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations, London, United Kingdom. pp. 420–511.
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Author(s)  
 
L. Jimu
Forestry Unit, Department of Environmental Science, Bindura University of Science Education (BUSE), P.B. 1020, Bindura, Zimbabwe
Based on PROSEA 17: ‘Fibre plants’.


Editors  
 
M. Brink
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
E.G. Achigan Dako
PROTA Network Office Africa, World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), P.O. Box 30677-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
Photo editor  
 
G.H. Schmelzer
PROTA Network Office Europe, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 341, 6700 AH Wageningen, Netherlands
Correct citation of this article  
 Jimu, L., 2011. Gossypium herbaceum L. [Internet] Record from PROTA4U. Brink, M. & Achigan-Dako, E.G. (Editors). PROTA (Plant Resources of Tropical Africa / Ressources végétales de l’Afrique tropicale), Wageningen, Netherlands. <http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp>. Accessed .



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General importance
Geographic coverage Africa
Geographic coverage World
Forage/feed use
Auxiliary use
Medicinal use
Vegetable oil use
Fibre use



Gossypium herbaceum
wild and planted



Gossypium herbaceum
1, flowering branch; 2, dehisced fruit; 3, seed.
Redrawn and adapted by H. de Vries



Gossypium herbaceum
Gossypium herbaceum



Gossypium herbaceum
Gossypium herbaceum



Gossypium herbaceum
Gossypium herbaceum



Gossypium herbaceum
Gossypium herbaceum



Gossypium herbaceum
Gossypium herbaceum


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